What Is An Ecosystem?

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals, microbes) interacting with their physical environment (air, water and mineral soil). The biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.

Ecosystems can be very small, a few animals and plants, or they can be huge, with hundreds of different species all working together to survive in a delicate balance. Examples include pond ecosystems and the gut ecosystem in humans.


An ecosystem is a complex of living organisms and non-living parts that interact with one another. Its biotic or living components include all the plants, animals and other organisms that make up the ecosystem and its abiotic or non-living parts consist of minerals, climate, soil, water, sunlight and the environment itself (see Biosphere).

Ecosystems can be very small, such as underneath a rock in your garden, or they can be very large, such as an entire forest. They can also be very diverse, meaning that they have different biotic and abiotic factors.

A healthy ecosystem is one that is in good condition. It can withstand changes in the abiotic and biotic factors that influence it, and it can recover when these changes are reduced.

There are a variety of factors that influence the health of an ecosystem, including weather conditions, soil conditions, air quality, land use, and other anthropogenic influences. Some of these changes may have a negative impact on the ecosystem, while others may increase it.

All of these factors affect the food chain and how things grow in an ecosystem. They also affect the way that energy flows through the ecosystem and how nutrients are cycled through it. It’s important to understand the different components of an ecosystem, so that you can better appreciate the beauty and complexity of our natural world.


Ecosystems are communities of living and nonliving organisms that interact with their environment. These environments include atmosphere, sunlight, water, soil, animals, and other nonliving factors.

Broad categories of terrestrial ecosystems are called biomes. These include rainforest, desert, grassland, and savanna.

Tropical rainforests experience yearly fluctuations in rainfall and temperature, slow plant growth and changes in light levels. Rainforest ecosystems are also vulnerable to disturbances, such as lightning and forest fires.

Grasslands, on the other hand, are less sensitive to changes in climate and can grow in areas with cold temperatures or snow. They are often home to grazing animals, such as sheep and cattle.

Biological communities in these ecosystems are interconnected by a network of food chains, or the flow of organic matter and energy from producers to primary consumers and so on. Autotrophs, such as plants, form the foundation of the food chain. They produce food through the process of photosynthesis. Consequently, all higher up on the food chain rely on them for their diets.

Biotic Components

Ecosystems are made up of living and nonliving things that physically interact with each other in an environment. These interactions keep the ecosystem in balance.

Biotic components are the living parts of an ecosystem, such as plants, animals, and fungi. They also include any other organism that interacts with the ecosystem.

They are broken down into three different groups: producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers (or autotrophs) are the first level in the food chain and convert abiotic factors into energy, such as sunlight and water.

Consumers (or heterotrophs) eat either producers or other consumers. These biotic factors include animals, bacteria, fungi, and parasitic plants.

The third group, decomposers, break down dead matter into a simpler form so that the producers can use it again.

These biotic factors include microscopic organisms like bacteria and plankton. They are the foundation of all life on Earth and play a crucial role in maintaining an ecosystem’s health.

Disruptions in the biotic component of an ecosystem can have serious effects on its health. For example, a disturbance in North American wolves can lead to the over-population of herbivores, which eat all the plants and grass in an area. This can cause problems for farmers who need to feed their livestock. Fortunately, this type of disruption can be reversed through conservation efforts.